audience applause thank you sarah.thank you all. having worn the coat toestablish my bona fides as obviously intelligent and ascholar, i’ll now take it off. it’s too warm and hot up hereand we’ve got a lot to do. there are many, many peopleinvolved in what i have to say and the best way to, i think, acknowledgethose people is in this manner. two of those folkare here today. dr phillip playford and hughedwards, both famous for their
work on our voc shipwrecks. other folk that you see upthere are jeremy green of course who heads our program. csilla, a scholar who you’llget to know in a minute. bob sheppard, juliet pasveer, myraof course – many of you know myra well. pat baker, walter bloom numismatist, wendy a dutch scholar. alistair paterson who’s goingto be leading a lot of the modern work that you see. jennifer here, one ofthe artefact managers.
nic bigourdan our scholarfrom france who’s with us. vicki, one of theheads of conservation. stephen knott, you’ll see him a bit more with a facial reconstruction. geoff kimpton of course, notonly a great diver and the man who’s built the batavia faã§adeand the batavia timbers but also a model maker of note. dan franklin aforensic archaeologist. jd hill from london,parthesius or “party house” as we used to call him,a dutch scholar.
ian macleod of course not justthe director but acknowledged – widely acknowledgedconservator. the late rupert gerritsen, a goodfriend and also a scholar. maddy mcallister, one ofour young things that we’re passing it all over to. and then we just go on. and on to all these wonderfulfolk who you won’t know because they aren’t part ofthe roaring forties group and they are all part of thenew dimension that we’re
developing now in using thebest technology as part of the roaring forties program whichi’ll talk about in a minute. you will recognise corioli souterthere from the department. and then some of these folkyou’ll also know from our group. sue cox, our departmentsecretary without whom we can’t do anything.the boss alec coles. ross anderson, one of our people.and of course ed punchard. and julia redwood whowill be doing film work. the others are scholarsof some significance in
technology but i thought i’d just mentionthose whom most of you will know. this is where it all beganwith folk like phillip and hugh and the late max cramerand others around and these are the works that led manypeople to learn about the dutch. and with the advent of jeremygreen shown here, apparently he was that focused, as youneeded to be in those days given the conditionsand so on. the crowd actually had to sendhis lunch down to him one day in a plastic bag with a leadweight they had tied that he
wouldn’t come up. so they sent the message down. it was naturallytightly focused work. because it was new, jeremyheaded one of the only three maritime archaeology units inthe world and it focused very, very much on the timbers andthe objects and the various things from the wrecks. however a lot has changed,as one would expect. we’re talking now the timefrom 1971 through now to the
present day and we’ve all cometo learn an awful lot more of the importance of indigenouscultures and their complexities. and one of the things as amuseum we do, is to try to attend to part of that missingunderstanding and knowledge that was there whenwe first started. here, samson or tjangaloli hiscorrect name, is on one of the world’s oldest boats. he is predated in boats solelyby those aboriginal folk shown here at the bottom rightwith the canoes shown which
probably go back to30 or 40,000 years. the wandjinas there are4 to 5 thousand years. so, in deference to that wealso looked at our program of ‘strangers on the shore’,the interaction of indigenous people with shipwrecksurvivors and i would have to say to you that this is a muchpurer view of what aboriginal people feel about the visitorsto their shores than those who come with power, with hats, drumsand all the trappings of those things. the one on the rightinterestingly is a steam ship
which is both part ofaboriginal legend and european legend which is part of our26-ship database that is developed by one of ourvolunteers lesley silvester. most of you are aware of allof this and most of you are aware of those who test thechallenge to dutch primacy. there’s many workson the subject. we’ve assisted folkwith many of them. bill richards forexample, did this one. that one, 1421 its best usetoday is for debbie,
the mother of our children, soshe doesn’t have to lift her head too high in the morning tosee what the alarm clock says. it’s an errant nonsense:beautifully written first two chapters but the rest of itare nonsense and i’m afraid to say down the bottom rightthere – my eyes are closed for the brick bats – thatthe chinese at the 400th anniversary of cheng ho whichi was privileged to go and lecture there, were not happyto find that cheng ho most likely did not come and if he didcome, there’s no evidence of it.
it’s very interesting, nationslike india and china now casting off the shackles oftheir earlier colonialism are very keen not to ever againallow a colonial power to do what they did to them and tohave been able to show cheng ho in a deservedly brightlight to them is a very important thing.however it’s not to be. so the actual evidence for theprimacy lies with the dutch. here is a lovely photo fromnasa taken inside the space shuttle across to dirk hartogand the plate therefore –
because it is the only proofof this primacy of visitation to indigenous shores- becomes priceless. and the first thing that’soccurred in recent times behind the scenes at themuseum has been work on the de vlamingh plate. it’s been led by ian macleodand groups of other folk (and ian has just arrived). the science bit is far toomuch for people like me who haven’t got right angles intheir dictionary and my great
skill is building chook runs butthere’s all sorts of work that those who arescientifically-bent can follow. these are some of theimages in ian’s report. what i tend to do withthese scientists is read the abstract and the conclusionand the abstract is there. i’m really pleased – i won’tgive you death by powerpoint – i’m really pleased thatit’s come out quite well. because of its status itrequired the attention of these folk: it not only haspreserved the plate for the
future but allows it to beproperly housed and presented in this museum in absolutebest practice and i would have to say learning a little bitof ian’s work that it’s also a pointer for those owningthe dirk hartog plate. the other thing that occurredvery much for us in this post 1980s, 1990s, was the changein perception of dirk hartog island from purelya dutch place. it has a lot more going for itand you’ll notice the presence between the laying of thehartog plate and the
de vlamingh plate of williamdampier’s arrival. you’ll also see the arrival ofmacassans and st aloã¼arn – a frenchman and other french folkincluding rose de freycinet. the fact that dampier isforgotten in the middle of this i think is related to ourdutch-centric approach here in western australia, withdampier way ahead of even cook and banks in being ourfirst natural historian, in describing the flora andfauna, in even making a collection whichcan be viewed today.
in fact it is dampier whofirst saw the sturt pea and it should be called the’dampiera formosa’. in fact you can go and see thesturt pea that he collected in 1699 in london. i was privileged to be withhugh to view that collection. the plates are now joinedin importance with this, the proof of the’french annexation’. we could have good wines a lotearlier and there’s my good friend and colleague bob sheppardand myself with the coin as found.
these join the dutch relics. we have a very strong frenchelement now to our work contrasting and comparingthe dutch and we even note – thanks to nic bigourdan mycolleague – that the french were taking note of the voc. in fact nic has translated inrecent times a journal that was in french of theirinteraction with the dutch, or their learning of the dutch. so we have gone a lot broaderthan we once were and one
would suggest that ofcourse we should have. but given that we were veryfocused in those days with many, many wrecks to dealwith, many threats to them, it’s logical that we did not but itis equally logical that we do now. the macassans, rose defreycinet, dampier they’re the first cultural exchange otherthan william dampier’s stay at cape leveque – what is nowknown as cape leveque – with the aboriginal people at sharkbay with rose de freycinet and of course rose defreycinet’s own story.
today we also getinto the mind of folk. we get the specialiststo help us do so. baudin for example, writingup there that he couldn’t understand how people couldseize lands, from folk who do not deserve the name “savages”as being given to them. we’re looking at a most recentpublication on the one on the left european perceptions ofterra australis, looking at the baudin thing, the way hewas vilely written out of the voyage, one by myselfon ‘who do you trust?
discrepancies between officialand unofficial accounts’. people write for an awful lotof reasons and the unofficial accounts are often the truestbut coming back to the voc, an extremely important chapterin this book on this one here, ‘changing perceptions of terraaustralis through the prism of the batavia shipwreck’, avery learned piece of work and quite long, which i recommend toanybody interested in the perceptions. so we’ve gone from the pictureon the left which was produced at the time that phil and hughand max cramer and everyone
else was doing their work, toaround about the time, in the ’80s and so on with this mapby scott sledge showing a much broader interest in thecolonial sites, to this one here which is the most modernshowing that we’ve really burgeoned in our interestsas one would expect. i love this – the common man. we do have many, many dutchscholars working with us nowadays and they’re lookingat it from a wide variety of perspectives includingof course the art.
one would hesitate to say thatwould represent the group here but i think it’s a wonderfulthing that we have. but talking about the commonman, we have literature that looks for all of us. peter fitzsimons’ i thinkis more for those not too interested in the truth but agood story and i must tell you peter’s a friend and iassisted him with the work and he knows what i believe. it’s a good story but there’sa lot of peter in there.
my preference of course isfor some of those by our colleagues here and of coursemike dash’s work which, i think, is without par. you’ll see there phillipplayford’s carpet of silver and lots of hughedwards’ work. you might not haveseen this thing here. it’s a graph that i ran acrossaccidentally showing the publications and the bataviaof course is really one that’s been published so often goingright back to the numbers of
works that you see herein this little bar graph. lots of scholars at worknow in holland and so on, initially wondering whatjeremy green, myra or pat baker and company were doinghere are now realising their own importance and you’refinding dutch scholars realising that theirs wasthe first multinational. theirs was the firstcompany to issue stock. theirs was thefirst to mint money. theirs was able towage war as a company.
i know a lot of the americanswould like to do that – some of the neocons i suppose, and they werethe first to establish colonies. our studies and studies thathave come to our attention have also shown us the terriblebrutality of colonialism. and i’ve got to tell you,i don’t think anything has changed. the british were not immunefrom the dutch brutality but i’ve got to tell you that everycolonial power does it to every other groupthat they colonise. there are obviously negativesand positives in what every
group does and here is theextraordinary breadth of the dutch east-india bases aroundthe ocean and they are being studied now individuallyby many scholars. research papers arecoming in very regularly, some beautifully illustrated,some giving contemporary illustrations and so on. this one, as the editor of the great circle – i received just the other day. myra had a look at it for me and said it was beautifully written. it’s interesting inits title though.
it’s the transferof knowledge. so again as i was saying,we’re getting away from purely the objects in the ships intosometimes people’s minds and this one on the right here bypeter reynders, why did the largest corporationin the world go broke? and this of course, he’sreferring to the voc. rupert, one of our goodfriends of the museum is a great supporter and did anawful lot of work chasing the gilt dragon folk and other stories,a great scholar actually.
even though many people werenot that impressed with some of his work, especially inlinguistics, i would have to say that across the boardrupert has been extremely good and his latest just beforehe died was on the immenhorn which was a voyage known ithink only to jeremy green, jim henderson and myra anda few others but little known to other people as avisitation to this coast. the universities have grabbedthe voc with alacrity. the universities: flindershere, many overseas,
gothenburg of course,notre dame over here with shane burke and uwa of course. that’s one of the coursestructures over there and one of those manifestations isbob sheppard’s honours at uwa. so from this, which was thefixation we had- which is a wonderful fixation i’ve gotto tell you – there’s myself well-dressed as usual onbottom right, geoff kimpton our chief diver, bob richards. ‘fixation’ is the wrong word butconcentration on the objects
underwater, to this and this is wherewe are today with the gilt dragon. i got hammered by a scholarjust yesterday for using the words “gilt dragon” andquite rightly so but as you saw, i struggle with thewords sometimes. i find “gilt dragon” so mucheasier and so i apologise for the dutch amongst you fornot saying “vergulde draeck”. this is where bob has beenconcentrating and i’ve stolen some of myra’s slides herewhich you’ll recognise and i’ve got to say we were a bit late,more than a bit late in getting there.
i think we should havebeen here a lot earlier. a key question that bobhas answered and he now has brought the archaeologicalcommunity along with him in answering this question. i’m hoping bob will also tellthe story of alan robinson, the great ‘pirate’, becausethis is very much part of it just as much as some of thepirates have been part of everything elsewe’ve ever done. peter and jillworsley are here.
their book windswept coast,the illustration is from there and they’ve done wonderfulwork in putting the dutch within a broader context. and here is bob’shonours thesis. i was pleased to be asupervisor of it and here is bob with the famous giltdragon urn which he’s just had studies returned to him fromjapan which are – not the urn, the incense urn, yep it’s notan incense urn – but he’ll tell you more about that inthe lecture coming up and
there he is with peter veth,one of our great archaeologists. bob’s lecture is onthe 12th of this month. i’m not going to pre-empt itexcept to say that bob has examined the land camps overthe last 12 years plus the stories and he has come to aconclusion that got him the honours degree and he is partof a group that is going up there to examinesome of his findings. the question that bob isattending to is: “what happened to those 68 men?”,
“what happened to those who were lost looking for the dragon?” and i’m not going to sayanymore except to tell you that he also has a blog whichwe often reproduce on our facebook we have facebook,twitter and all those things nowadays. always you get hoaxes and oneof the things wendy did was to have a look at one of thehoaxes to do with the dragon which appears just north ofhere and it did appear soon after the wrecks were foundin this form here on rocks. it’s been seized upon bynumerous people who insist
that it’s real and that’whoever’ at the museum who don’t have any expertise inthese sorts of things and of course when you don’t haveexpertise,you bring in those who do have it. the engraving is here today. you can see down the bottomhere and wendy and her associates have shownthat it’s almost certainly contemporary with the findingof the wreck and the fact that in between the time it wasfirst seen in this picture and this one here, if it was going toget to that stage in 40 years,
how did it last for300 is an obvious question? but she’s attended to allsorts of issues like the fonts that are used and so on andso on and some wonderful work. we’ve also had to deal within the back rooms things like henry’s work, henry claimingthat there was a dutch settlement here and so on. the evidence for itis limited at best. we’re a public institution andi’m a public archaeologist. so we’re developingexhibitions and we’re
spreading ourselves aroundand the dutch need to be seen today in the context of thegreat oceanographic events. edmund matuta, a greatfavourite of mine, the voyages of the portuguese and the thing atthe bottom there is nick burningham’s. i would say a prettydefinitive work on what cheng ho’s boats really did looklike and i’m using “cheng ho” as an anglicised version. nick has done his estimatesand gives it about 57 metres as a maximum for that sort of thingand nick will publish on that in time.
some of the materials thatwe have are sent over. here’s the artefactmanagement team at the time. why they’re wearing crashhelmets i don’t know but it seems that that’s the thing we have todo nowadays and ‘high viz’ vests. it’s a great picture and thedutch were so keen on what was happening here with myra,jennifer, wendy and ross that they sent this container overwhich was suitably inscribed on all sides with wonderfulvoc images and so on and this particular one was onits way to an exhibition.
so, that’s how they appeared butthey have been shown in recent years throughout holland andthere’s some quite beautiful exhibits that have focused onthe dutch and of course the dutch now are rightlyvery proud of their dutch shipwrecks and the worksthat jeremy and company have pioneered and are nowreturning back to them in this form. and there’s some of theobjects at the bottom and the middle slide, the one i’vesquished in, pays homage to those artefact managers who sowonderfully pack and send and
catalogue and do all thethings that i’m hopeless in doing. we also have sent exhibitionsto the regions geraldton of course, one at kalbarri there. there’s a new one down in theshipwreck museum crediting the finders of the gilt dragon ofwhich graeme henderson – our former director and one oftheleaders of our colonial wreck program – is here today andit’s really, i think very correct that we give duecredence to the finders, the hughs, the maxs, thephils and all the others.
most recently an exhibitionat the concert hall with geoff kimpton’s magnificentmodel of the batavia there. for a man who builds facadesand ships and was once brought out up from 1,000 feetunderwater in a ‘big jim’ suit, he’s just shown remarkable skill in producing this model. and then we got ourselvesall our objects repatriated. it’s quite interesting, thedutch were repatriated and there’s wendy and the dutchconsul and the minister and of course alec, jeremy andthe minister again and the
premier – such an event. behind the scenes there’s anenormous amount of management of these things. here’s our artefact managementteam at work cataloguing and also they have audits,regular audits to ensure that everything is where itshould be, even down to the appropriate drawer and so on. so, it’s very important thatthis be done but you don’t hear about it, you don’t getto see it but there is a team that
get involved under myra’sgood guidance in doing so. as public archaeologists we’recommitted to the museum, of course and of course the newmuseum is very much on our horizon, with corioli from ourstaff now very much embedded within the new museum and withits curators joining us only today for a tour to see what sortof crossovers there may have been. the little girl and the littleboy on the right are the most magnificent pictures becauseagain – i like to hark back and i know lots of otherpeople do – to the indigenous
links that we have. and with the zuytdorp after1986, our horizons lifted from the silver much to the peopleand the most magnificent picture i think that we havein the collection of charlie mallard with the consolefrom the zuytdorp, the most magnificent human picture withthe exception of samson i would suggest. so here we arefocusing elsewhere. here’s geoff kimpton and ouron-site conservator which again, is a majorbehind-the-scenes issue
conservation which youdon’t see much about. jon carpenter looking at thismost glorious officer’s cup, a glass that geoff recoveredfrom the zuytdorp with the wreck behind but i would sayequally important is an original of the sort of platethat they hammered to make the hartog and de vlamingh plates. but our focus needed a siteplan and any good shipwreck site plan has to be good toenable you to say the sorts of things you want to sayabout what it means.
here however, we actually usedaerial photography and there’s geoff, also avery good artist. we actually did the workunderwater with a builder’s tape, one of thoseretractable ones. to do so, we used aerialphotography and here, dola put in huge amounts of effortfor us in putting a graticule across the wreck, allowing usto see through the water and then for geoff – i hold thezero end of tapes by the way, i need to tell you – forgeoff to measure the distance
between the rocks and betweenthis anchor and that anchor and the rocks that we couldsee in that picture and that was how we came to have oursite plan, the one that you see here. thanks also to a man calledstanley hewitt, a retired architect draftsman whoone day came in looking for something to do and veryquickly got onto that. volunteers are very much a bigpart of the museum and i see curtis here today and numerousothers like the worsleys and other folk here who help us,jill and others who are in the
gallery, “copper” john there thewhole load of folk who assist us. it’s essential.the big question though is this. and our work was able toshow that phil playford’s postulation that they gotoff, his record of there being evidence of occupation at thetop was possible, using this record that we put becauseeven though it comes from a scholar such as phil, thesethings have to be tested. we now know the zuytdorpactually lay up against the reef because thebell of the zuytdorp is
actually stuck here in the reef. it’s not on the ground. it’s there and that can onlyhave been there if something was supporting it,as it fixed in. that was stanleyimage by the way. he was also anartist of some note. so to answer it we bring inour best archaeologists that we can get at the timeto answer the questions. there’s jon carpenter takingvideo of fiona weaver and richard cassells and weactually took a quantum leap
and brought in a metaldetector who actually brought himself in to theprogram, bob sheppard. and bob was actually wantingto write a novel on the zuytdorp and then very quicklytold us of his skills and they were applied in searching forthe movement of the survivors away from the wreck usingmetallic objects that obviously the aboriginalpeople would not have used. at the time this wasseriously looked down upon. we also took the museum’s thenwatch keeper, dom lamera who
had been hunting for the dutchin his own right and he joined and took us to all the wellsand soaks and with bob and with that list of prettyhigh-powered archaeologists below, we examined the wellsand soaks that bob was able to point, that dom was able to showus and geoff and i were able to find. the zuytdorp has also been awatershed in the use of metal detection in maritimein archaeology. here, bob normally trails achain behind him which marks the ground that he’s been- so thorough – and here is
something that we used upat wale well with phillip playford in making sure thathe was able to say “i’ve been through everything.it’s just the car tracks.” but what has happened in the joining of his metal detectionwork with the archaeologists and going for minimumdisturbance and placing flags of different colours toindicate what metal lies beneath – this for copper,this for iron, this for silver – we are able to tell thearchaeologists, “well if you
don’t dig over there, you’regoing to miss that over there,” and in fact, if it hadnot been for bob, the french bottle at dirk hartog islandwould still be there today. so the zuytdorp has seen theintroduction of heritage metal detection skills under bob andhis son zack, into maritime archaeology: with st aloã¼arn,the french wreck perseverant, ned kelly’s work, batavia’sgraveyard, long island and the gilt dragon. so, interesting developmentthere and not without quite some considerable efforton our part and bob’s in
validating the study but it’sthere now thanks to bob. there was no dutch -indigenous interaction at the zuytdorp that we can prove. kate here, is at ournormal afternoon sundowner contemplating the fact thatshe has dated the aboriginal sites to four to fivethousand years bp. we also supported phillip whojoined – very kindly joined – our team to assist us and letus know what he knew about the place and its people andthe indigenous sites, in his
postulation that the dutchmoved north to a place called wale well which you’ll seejust at the bottom of dirk hartog island – sorry, ofshark bay – and that they would be there and thanksto bob and tony cockbain who actually found the object,this relic was found. phil equally importantlywas able to show that these objects are from the kalbarriregion and that they had been moved the 70 or so miles northby aboriginal folk in trade. so what this has proven to usis that there certainly was
movement of aboriginalcultural material in the region behind the wreck. what we don’t think hashappened is that they were actually livingnear the coast. phillip has plans to go back thereand that has the support of the museum. our works are there -phillip’s award-winning carpet of silver there, my owntechnical reports and so on and those things appearas one would expect. however, we were beaten -geoff and i and the rest of us
who like to push it a bit -by the advent of health and safety legislation and thewheels literally fell off. it got that stupid that weweren’t even allowed to take the four wheel drive intothe field because lend lease wouldn’t let you take yourfour wheel drive in without great sort of penaltiesand all that sort of stuff. geoff by the way is at thebottom of that line you can see in the bottom left,there’s a line going into the water and he’s at the bottomof that and that’s yours truly
jumping in at the top. deb’s only seen thesepictures of late. so that was the end of ourfield work for that period. however, we didn’t stop. wendy became a fundamentalpart of it all. here’s her report on the scansof that console, beginning to study the dendrochronology,the timbers and so on. this is an enormousramification. some of her work is leading tothe realisation that some of
the timbers used on some ofour ships were actually also some of the timbers usedto frame some of the great artworks of the world. interesting stuff. more to come and thisis part of her report. as always, scholarsdon’t always agree. wendy also helped develop agroup to look at the ingots that geoff and i raised overthe years, a very important study, very interestingstudy in trade, those ingots. some wonderful work jimstedman – one of the
archaeologists from uwa – ledas part of his honours and wendy put it together in aninternationally-recognisable form. wendy is big on differentspelling, being dutch and all that and insisted that “it’sthis.” however, what we’ve learnt is that there are manyways of spelling it and we’ve stayed here in westernaustralia with the ones that we’ve been led to fromthe earlier scholars. arguments continue. as i said, i got it in theneck about using gilt dragon
and then how the way we’dspelt “zeewijk” in the flyer, just about a daybefore i came here. it all ended nicely butthat’s how it works. there was also a hoax on thezuytdorp which again some of the so-called specialists inrock art demanded that it was real but phillip quite clearlyshowed that it was not. apart from wendy who showedthat it was not from other reasons, there being awonderful picture on the bottom right which was part ofphillip’s early group in
’54, showing the place that thezuytdorp inscription was – with the chappy who’s hat isbeing blown off because he’s standing in a blowhole – andthe place where the zuytdorp’s supposed to be, clearlynot there in 1954. so that inscription clearly post-dates’54, thanks to some images. hoaxes sometimes go beyondthat and dominic – sad to say, not only under amnestydeclared some beautiful coins but didn’t declare a lot of theschellingen and eventually later on was dobbed in by arelative and his silver was
found in his chook run orsomewhere of that nature – and this is the sort ofbehind-the-scenes thing that myra, jen and wendy and allthe crowd have to deal with, is looking at these seizures and getting everything correct. they’re in those you-beautsort of evidence bags and all that sort of stuff.you don’t see this. you don’t hear about it. this is one of the otherthings is our links to the general public and otherinterests in research groups
of which this one is verystrong – or was and they’re very strong and did somebeautiful work – but they were very strong on the issueof the indigenous european connections as one of thethings and so are the dutch. the dutch love it. these are a couple of excerptsfrom dutch works on the blonde aborigines but to date noneof that has been resolved. the porphyria variegata link,which was very keen at one stage, has been shown not tohave any greater than a normal
incidence in populations. so while they are allowed todo that and can do that, we have to be much more circumspectin the way we manage such things. down the bottom there’s aninteresting new book on the zuytdorp – peter purchase -and we also have to point – and sometimes not to pleasureto those who point elsewhere – to other issues such as thelanding of 120 malay boys between ages 12 to 14 onthis ship, the xantho. they are from batavia.
so if you look to dutch genesin the population of shark bay, one would have to lookfirst to the malay folk who were abandoned quite often bycharles broadhurst and many of whom stayed and became the mainstaysof the shark bay population. we also need to look at thisagain, often considered to be a dutch east-indiaman. colin jack-hinton from the museum, oneof the people who suggested it was. it lies at walga rock inlandfrom kalbarri and stanley, my artist, had a look at thisand this was sort of quite
incidental in his preparationof another image of zuytdorp, in the suggestion thatthis is a mainmast. that thing in the middle of theaboriginal paint picture is a mast. it appears however that it- and if i can draw your attention also to the sail -it appears however that it’s equally likely to be asteamship which ian crawford called me one day and said”could your xantho have had guns?” and i said “no ian but it couldhave had false gun ports,” and he said – as did charliedortch soon after – felt that
it’s possible that the walgarock painting is actually a steamship with what they call a”woodbine funnel” to create a big draft. gun ports were common onsteamers and on sailing ships but in those days the other day werealised thanks to alex kilpa – one my colleagues – that sotoo were rectangular scuttles on passenger steamers andthe xantho for example was a passenger steamer – a paddlesteamer before being converted to a screw steamer. so, if we put our rectangularscuttles on our supposed
xantho then we need to acceptthat the walga rock painting could equally be a steam ship. i have an honours student nowstudying that as part of her honours. the other thing i’d suggest toyou is the lateen sail which is shown on all the dutcheast-india ships does not match the sail in our walgarock picture which shows more readily a 19th century mizzen. one other study that we’ve gotinvolved in of course is this one with the zuytdorp, stationfolk who found the wreck.
their built heritage, theirsocial heritage and members of the team are here today whohave joined with us, karen bassett from the museum. this is one of phillip’s plansfrom one of his early ones showing the wreck siteand their built heritage. i would suggest to you this isextremely important to preserve. equally too, ‘betties’ at thebend of the murchison river where a lot of them lived andthere’s the most remarkable oral histories and we have topreserve these before a fire goes through.
and luckily the team, someshown here and were able to find at least anumber of them. we still havesome more to find. zeewijk magnificent image. chris halls, marcus conrad inthe countryman – old wreck may be the aagtekerke becausethese two divers had just been diving up there and had foundtusks and there on the left is max cramer, the late maxcramer and hugh edwards. and the suggestion that thiscould be the aagtekerke and
not the zeewijk at the time,was very well-founded because here is some research that wasproduced by robert parthesius showing that only three shipsthat only one ship actually carried tusks of the threemissing in western australia – or missing possibly in westernaustralia fortuyn, aagtekerke and zeewijk – and only aagtekerkehad tusks as part of its cargo. so, for chris halls to suggestthat the divers in following aagtekerke were right, isabsolutely to be expected. the museum arrives in the formof catharina ingelman-sundberg
who now trundles along on herscooter and writes children’s books in sweden it washer job that i took. when she left to chase aswedish prince, the job came up and i was pleased to get it. there’s her report. you can read every one of them. they’re all on the web. here is her site plan showingthe wreck out at sea, the area searched and you can seethere the cannons and so on. here is the work that was doneon the island in searching for the relics and so on and hereis two of our great notables
in shipwreck archaeologyon the island conducting a magnetometer search jeremygreen and graeme henderson. they also did a magnetometersearch out of a helicopter. that helicopter is triallinga magnetometer and leading graeme to conclude when onlyone wreck was found, other than the ones, colonial onesknown, that the aagtekerke is most likely not on the halfmoon reef, or certainly not in the southern abrolhos. there’s catharina’swork there.
we’ve got into the minda bit here, nowadays. martin gibbs’ shipwrecksurvivor camps. lots of interesting thingsnow being done by folk that we hadn’t even dreamt of andof course this is one of the reasons why archaeologistshave to present and record to the ‘nth’ degree. hugh never forgot aboutthe ivory and then obtained backing from kerry stokeshad fugro fly for him a magnetometer search andpresented his reasons.
i must take somecredit for this hugh. when he and i went up to maxcramer’s funeral we discussed this a lot and though i saidto hugh, “i don’t think so. i think hugh that you shouldpresent your case,” and hugh did so, to some effect, tothe museum and presented the evidence that he had beengiven from fugro and so on, such that it caused themuseum’s maritime archaeology advisory committee, againa behind-the-scenes thing, to talk about the work that he wasdoing and what’s required further.
most recently hugh has beenback to follow more research and he’s received quitesome press on the subject. he’s also received the backingof the museum in it and here you see the dutch embassyasking also for support to commence research infollowing up his work. one of my students – csillahere, quite a brilliant young girl, a family excellent inarchives could read old dutch – so i had her look at thestory of the fortuyn to see where that might be and you’llsee on the bottom left there
at a meeting that nicbigourdan’s attending for us, one of the subjects is thesearch for the fortuyn and you’ll see amongst thosethings, hmas sydney, ae1, ae2 a much more rounded approach toshipwrecks there but fortuyn is part of it. csilla has concluded that it may be at christmas or at cocos. robert’s report came inassisted by the foundation and robert’s conclusions arethat he doesn’t think so. however, when he was part ofthe group that was here, like the group which was chaired bygraeme henderson with jeremy
there, the conclusion was thateven though some don’t think so, the work still must bedone and because there has to be final proof. as i’ve said to hugh – becausei liketo have my two bob’s worth – “hugh, there’s much more here aboutwhere the sloepie was built”. there’s the wonderful storiesof the people and one of the great things you’ve done hugh- whether the wreck is found or not – is to put a focusback on the zeewijk such that we can now understandit in better terms.
csilla for example, then tookon a much bigger work for us and jeremy and i supervisedthis one, on providing a database, a modern database ofthe losses from the voc ships, the batavia and zeewijk.it’s great stuff. modern young scholars are justwonderful in the way that they get about things but here shehas listed all those who are expected to be possibly stillburied or were buried before the broadhurst’s guanoindustry from the zeewijk. jeremy and others have begunensuring that archives are
searched and there’s also beensearches of the work and the reports of those who firstsaw zeewijk records – sorry zeewijk material- on the reefs. again, you can read them all. finally, only a week or twoago jeremy came back from the abrolhos and produced thisreport which again you can read, on his looking atdereferencing a 36-year-old survey plan. the point being made is thatthe work that catharina and others had done, could not beproperly referenced in modern
terms to the standards werequire and here for example, airborne magnetometryhappening, you need pinpoint accuracy with these thingseven though you can cover great ground very quickly. here’s the sorts ofresults that you get. here for example are threeindicators of a shipwreck up at ningaloo, one proving to bethe correio da azia, another being a shipwreck that wasnot even in the records and we apparently know nothing ofit just yet even though graeme
has been exhaustive in hisresearch for ‘unfinished voyages’ but this wreck appearsin indigenous legend. so it’s interesting that theaboriginal stories have been proven in this case. this is what we’re looking todo what jeremy’s done in the interim is match the fugrodata with the data from catharina using a rock, a hugegreat rock which appears on both plans – the fugro planand catharina’s plan shown on that red arrow top right andwhat he has found is that they
do match to within goodparameters and now we’re into the next stage where wecan start going with hugh and fugro and others tofinalise that work. we are public archaeologists.we work in the gallery. we like to have the peoplearound us when we work. i think that’s theessence of a good museum. i learnt this watching geoffkimpton build the batavia. he was in there in hisoveralls and when he wasn’t welding and swearing as i toldthe people from the new museum
today, the gallery was open andpeople could watch him at work. that’s a true living museum. here’s wendy at work doing hershipwreck – her ship studies and she has a course in itnow, at flinders university. a beautiful picture ofwendy and bill leonard. the great bill leonard, forthose who don’t know, built endeavour and duyfken and theset for master and commander. new work on old ships. the trouble is it’s allrotting away and there’s
vicki richards, one of ourconservators again behind the scenes looking at the problemof acid formation in the batavia timbers, caused bysulphate-reducing bacteria. it’s there inevery one of them. it’s there in the vikingships, in mary rose, in vasa, in the bremen cog. and she has worked with hercolleagues, ian macleod, ian godfrey and many others,to go overseas to assist them and also to come back withthe answers for here.
again, behind the scenes. again something you won’t seeor hear much of unless you read those sorts of journals. as i said, read theabstract and the conclusion. that’s the easiest way.they’re onto it well. other studies you don’t seeare walter bloom’s, lectures to the numismatic communityand they’re always interested in all sorts of esotericthings, as collectors are and they have every right to allthis sort of information and
it’s out therein our databases. but most interestingly, ontop of one of his older things i’ve superimposed a new thing. now, i bet none of you canhandle this ‘laser ablation inductively coupledplasma mass spectrometry’ elemental finger printing beingrun by some of the team liesel gentilli doing her phd ontop of the work that walter’s doing and this is behind the scenes,including dna work on that ivory. the graveyards, the wreck,our commitment to the divers,
to kids, the underwaterdisplay case, the museum-without-walls. your museum is the first toestablish a wreck trail in the southern hemisphere. we like to see ourselves asleaders and we have to work hard to stay there and we dothat with some of the young folk that we’venow taken on board. this is still a beautifulpicture henrietta over the top of the remains of the batavia.
what this also does is showyou how small a part of the wreck we actually have becauseit’s stretched all the way up to those anchors. if you’re going and having alooktoday look for the hole in the reef. in fact, it’s exactly what isaid to some of my friends who were trundling up there for a dive -the mclean’s – how to find it. i said “look for the holein the reef,” and they did. there pat baker hassuperimposed the ship over it. there today you can have alook and see jeremy in that hole.
you can just go and googlethat and you can actually take this tour, in a virtual sense. so we’ve actually changed and gonea long way beyond where we were. declaring of historic listingunder the heritage acts and so on something that’s taken awhile but now is well in place. the terrestrial sites atbeacon island and long island. the commencements ofthe excavations in 2001. the continuation of martingibbs’s work on survival strategies, there a thesis byben marwick, based upon things
– and again one of myra’sslides – based upon all sorts of things and reportsdifferent to the ones that we used to deal with. the advent of theyoung into our world. post-disaster behaviour andthis is one of course that many of you know a bit about. one of the most horrificpictures i think in the collection. nothing seems to change it appears. and of course some of these,the good in the bad, is that
you’re able then to use someof these remains to answer questions about health andwelfare and so on, of these people and of course,helping to tell their story. here’s myra and juliet pasveer,one of the forensic scientists. another team of forensicscientists here. they had to chuck some poorperson out needing an mri scan, it appears. other experts and the papersare just extraordinary. dan franklin.here we have dr watling’s.
and then of course thisis what excites everyone but i challenge any of you and i’mgoing to – i’m not going to donate my head to the job -but i was going to say that what should happen is theyshould be given a head of somebody who we all know andbe given the job of seeing if it works and whether it looksanything like that head. a fairly simple thing to do but iwould have thought but i’ll keep mine on for now thanks. but isn’t it fantastic stuff. apparently it is based onscience and there’s
stephen knott doing his work. this is all stuff that’scoming out and of course csilla’s databases and thensome wonderful stuff that’s been happening with the dutcharchives, finding the original documents and reading them. here, you’ll see pelsaert’s- francisco pelsaert’s signature. beacon island surveyis underway now. ground-penetrating radar. there’s bob on beacon island. there’s the places that theteam, including myself, were
part of in the surveyof long island. they were the reports. you’ve probably all seen thetime team and how good ‘geophys’ is. well ‘geophys’ sometimes doesn’twork and ground-penetrating radar has not proved successful on beacon island. here is the beginnings of theregreening, first that patch you see which is thebeginnings of the removal of parts of the vegetation toexamine where there may be graves and that’s beenreturned back to natural.
the removal of the shacks. this amazing work beingundertaken here by some of our scientists from uwaand curtin university. why he was doing that i didn’tknow until i’d seen him and of course some of themore common things. if you’re going to remove thesethings you must record them. why? because the fishers are justas much an important part of our society as anything elseand if you’re going to remove
evidence of their wonderfulwork for the economy and for themselves as society,you must record it. now look at this.paul bourke and company. this is some ofthe 3d records. there’s the ministerannouncing the removal of the huts and this is a bubblethingy inside the huts. so the huts have been recordedbefore they’re removed, in a form that you can thendisassemble and see exactly as the school room onbeacon island was.
one of the living hutsand my favourite, this. then of course the islandsneed to be protected while the archaeology occurs and this isoccurring right now, such that the ground can’t be disturbedin the interim as a team called the roaring fortiesteam goes up there and commences its work on a grantthat was received to look at these sites and toapply new technology. i think geoff and i will havea quiet bet as to whether they can produce a plan as good asours for zuytdorp and stanley
but you know, we’llsee how they go. the gauntlet’s thrown down.this is the team. that’s the people you saw,early on, plus some of our staff who are not on the team. it’s quite an amazing team,right from all around the world that is now going totake the east-india studies and some of the pre-colonialwrecks including the rapid which graeme worked and so onand do their sort of science and all those wonderfulthings with it.
so, watch this space and theyhopefully will achieve these aims. one of the things they will dois present at a thing called ikuwa in 2016 which is a majorconference that’s happening here and you see there inthe middle the team that has brought ikuwa to us. on the left, the oldschoolbook which i still use on the maritime explorationof australia by jacob and vellios, a school group ofyoung scientists coming in to talk to our conservators,ian godfrey and co and on the
right and to finish off, thedevelopment of a website by carmelo amalfi which you’llsee hugh there as part of the launch with the national trustand the dutch ambassador. thank you.